Paperittomien maahanmuuttajien muuttoliike Suomeen, Suomessa ja Suomesta


  • Jussi Jauhiainen
  • Miriam Tedeschi


undocumented migrants, irregular migration, migration journeys, Finland, Helsinki


Irregular migration to, in and from Finland is the focus of this study. The empirical material consists of a survey among undocumented migrants (n=100) in Finland in 2019 and earlier surveys among all Finnish municipalities about undocumented migrants. In 2019, about 4,000–5,000 undocumented migrants were in Finland. Most current undocumented migrants came to Finland in 2015 legally as asylum seekers (who later failed to obtain asylum or other residence permit), fewer entered Finland without legal right to do so and some remained in Finland after their resident permit on other than asylum seeking grounds expired. War, insecurity, and economic challenges in the country of origin influenced people’s decision to leave. Perceived safety and economic opportunities in Finland influenced their choice of it as the destination country. For some, Finland was rather a choice influenced by rumours and misinformation, also in the social media. Many undocumented migrants live in Helsinki and the capital region. This area attracts undocumented migrants from other parts of Finland due to better everyday opportunities. Very few if any lives in rural areas and small towns. Of responded undocumented migrants, 2–11 percent considered outmigration from Finland and 22 percent could perhaps return to their country of origin. Many will remain in Finland for years if not permanently despite legal, economic and social hardships.